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Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome. Sex-biased gene expression is thought to drive the phenotypic differences in males and females in metazoans. Drosophila has served as a. We found that 42% of all annotated genes showed sex-biased expression in D. magna. This proportion is similar both to estimates from other Daphnia species.

"In each tissue, we identified hundreds of genes with conserved sex-biased expression," which contribute to the trait differences between sexes. RT @DarrenJParker: New paper! We find that, contrary to our predictions, sex-​biased gene expression is repeatedly masculinized in asexual s. Methods of transcriptional profiling have made it possible to compare gene expression between females and males on a genome-wide scale. Such studies have.

We found that 42% of all annotated genes showed sex-biased expression in D. magna. This proportion is similar both to estimates from other Daphnia species. Sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed in the genome, with examples of both under-representation and over-representation on the X. Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome.






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In the meantime, to sex continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. Biased Nature Research Journal. Differences between males and females in the optimal phenotype that is favoured by selection can be resolved by the evolution of differential gene expression in the two sexes.

Microarray experiments have shown that such sex-biased gene expression is widespread across organisms and genomes. Sex-biased genes show biased rapid sequence evolution, are often labile in their pattern of expression, and are non-randomly distributed in the genome.

Here we discuss the characteristics and expression of sex-biased genes, and the selective forces that shape this previously unappreciated source of phenotypic diversity. Sex-biased gene expression has implications beyond just evolutionary biology, including for medical genetics. Genes with sex-biased expression, especially those with biased expression, tend to evolve rapidly in both protein sequence and expression level. Sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed in the genome, with examples of both under-representation and over-representation on the X chromosome.

There is mounting evidence that positive selection is the driving force behind the rapid evolution of sex-biased genes. This is probably caused by sexual selection and antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. Sex-linked sex that escape dosage compensation constitute a special case of sex-biased gene expression.

There are several scenarios for the origin of sex-biased genes, including single-locus antagonism, sexual antagonism plus gene duplication and duplication of sex-biased genes.

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Zhang, Z. Molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila. Richards, S. Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura : chromosomal, gene, and cis -element evolution. Metta, M. No accelerated rate of protein evolution in male-biased Drosophila pseudoobscura genes. Genetics— Reinke, V. Genome-wide germline-enriched and sex-biased expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development— Cutter, A. Sexual and temporal dynamics of molecular evolution in C.

Altschul, S. Nucleic Acids Res. Torgerson, D. Mammalian sperm proteins are rapidly evolving: evidence of positive biased in functionally diverse genes. Schultz, N. A multitude of genes expressed solely in meiotic or postmeiotic spermatogenic cells offers a myriad of contraceptive targets.

USA— Good, J. Rates of protein evolution are positively correlated with developmental timing of expression during mouse spermatogenesis. Khaitovich, P. Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of biased and chimpanzees. In a comparative genomic study of humans and chimpanzees, the authors find that testis-expressed genes have diverged rapidly in both protein sequence and expression level.

Positive correlation between evolutionary sex and recombination rate in Drosophila genes with male-biased expression. Widespread adaptive evolution of Drosophila genes with sex-biased expression. DNA polymorphism and divergence data reveal that sex-biased genes undergo frequent adaptive evolution in Drosophila species.

Sawyer, S. Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila. Nielsen, R. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees. PLoS Biol. Dorus, S. Genomic and functional evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteome. Nature Genet. Swanson, W. Evolutionary expressed sequence tag analysis of Drosophila female reproductive tracts identifies genes subjected to positive selection.

Panhuis, T. Molecular evolution and population genetic analysis of candidate female reproductive genes in Drosophila. The rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. Nature Rev. The enemies within: intergenomic conflict, interlocus contest evolution ICEand the intraspecific Red Queen. Gavrilets, S. Rapid evolution of reproductive barriers driven by biased conflict. Stepinska, U. Jamieson, B.

Stewart, S. Species specificity in avian sperm:perivitelline interaction. A Mol. Berlin, S. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in sex, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

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BMC Genomics 12 : Reproductive behaviour evolves rapidly when intralocus sexual conflict is removed. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster.

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Sex Dev 6 : — Sex-specific and lineage-specific alternative splicing in primates. Genome Res 20 : — Intralocus sexual conflict. Trends Ecol Evol 24 : — BMC Genomics 13 : Population and sex differences in Drosophila melanogaster brain gene expression.

Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing. Using FlyAtlas to identify better Drosophila melanogaster models of human disease. Nat Genet 39 : — Negative genetic correlation for adult fitness between sexes reveals ontogenetic conflict in Drosophila. PNAS 98 : — A deep sequencing approach to comparatively analyze the transcriptome of lifecycle stages of the filarial worm, Brugia malayi.

Association between sex-biased gene expression and mutations with sex-specific phenotypic consequences in Drosophila. Genome Biol Evol 3 : — Intergenomic conflict revealed by patterns of sex-biased gene expression. Trends Genet 21 : — Sexually antagonistic selection, sexual dimorphism, and the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict. Am Nat : — Sexually dimorphic gene expression in mouse brain precedes gonadal differentiation. Mol Brain Res : 82— Profiling sex-biased gene expression during parthenogenetic reproduction in Daphnia pulex.

BMC Genomics 8 : The evolution of sex-biased genes and sex-biased gene expression. Nat Rev Genet 8 : — Mol Biochem Parasitol : 1— Sequencing and characterization of the guppy Poecilia reticulata transcriptome. The genomic location of sexually antagonistic variation: Some cautionary comments. Evolution 64 : — Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing and chromatin structure in Drosophila gonads revealed by RNA-seq.

Cell Res 20 : — Affy-analysis of Affymetrix GeneChip data at the probe level. Bioinformatics 20 : — Bioconductor: Open software development for computational biology and bioinformatics. Genome Biol 5 : R The X chromosome is a hot spot for sexually antagonistic fitness variation.

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PLoS Biol 8 : e Evolution of sex-dependent gene expression in three recently diverged species of Drosophila. Genetics : — Genome-wide analysis of developmental and sex-regulated gene expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

The contributions of sex, genotype and age to transcriptional variance in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet 29 : — The mouse X chromosome is enriched for sex-biased genes not subject to selection by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

Nat Genet 36 : — Sexual conflict and environmental change: Trade-offs within and between the sexes during evolution of desiccation resistance. J Genet 87 : — Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Mol Biol Evol 27 : — Evolution of maximal endurance capacity: Natural and sexual selection across age classes in a lizard. Evol Ecol Res 10 : — MicroRNAs show diverse and dynamic expression patterns in multiple tissues of Bombyx mori.

BMC Genomics 11 : Adult locomotory activity mediates intralocus sexual conflict in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of sexual selection on offspring fitness depends on the nature of genetic variation.

Curr Biol 22 : — Genome-wide annotation and analysis of zebra finch microRNA repertoire reveal sex-biased expression. Transcription regulation of sex-biased genes during ontogeny in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Sex-biased gene expression in a ZW sex determination system. J Mol Evol 63 : — Ontogenetic complexity of sexual dimorphism and sex-specific selection.

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Mol Biol Evol 31 : — Intralocus sexual conflict diminishes the benefits of sexual selection. PLoS Biol 4 : e Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae revels tissue-specific signatures of odor coding. An evolutionary cost of separate genders revealed by male-limited evolution. Am Nat : 29— Lifetime selection on adult body size and components of body size in a waterstrider: Opposing selection and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism. Evolution 54 : — Hyperexpression of the X chromosome in both sexes results in extensive female bias of X-linked genes in the flour beetle.

Genome Biol Evol 2 : — Widespread adaptive evolution of Drosophila genes with sex-biased expression. Sex-dependent gene expression and evolution of the Drosophila transcriptome. Temporal variation in divergent selection on spine number in threespine stickleback.

Evolution 56 : — A global profile of germline gene expression in C. Mol Cell 6 : — Genome-wide germline-enriched and sex-biased expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development : — Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura : chromosomal, gene, and cis -element evolution. Metta, M. No accelerated rate of protein evolution in male-biased Drosophila pseudoobscura genes. Genetics , — Reinke, V. Genome-wide germline-enriched and sex-biased expression profiles in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Development , — Cutter, A. Sexual and temporal dynamics of molecular evolution in C. Altschul, S. Nucleic Acids Res. Torgerson, D. Mammalian sperm proteins are rapidly evolving: evidence of positive selection in functionally diverse genes. Schultz, N. A multitude of genes expressed solely in meiotic or postmeiotic spermatogenic cells offers a myriad of contraceptive targets.

USA , — Good, J. Rates of protein evolution are positively correlated with developmental timing of expression during mouse spermatogenesis. Khaitovich, P. Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. In a comparative genomic study of humans and chimpanzees, the authors find that testis-expressed genes have diverged rapidly in both protein sequence and expression level. Positive correlation between evolutionary rate and recombination rate in Drosophila genes with male-biased expression.

Widespread adaptive evolution of Drosophila genes with sex-biased expression. DNA polymorphism and divergence data reveal that sex-biased genes undergo frequent adaptive evolution in Drosophila species. Sawyer, S. Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila.

Nielsen, R. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees. PLoS Biol. Dorus, S. Genomic and functional evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteome. Nature Genet. Swanson, W. Evolutionary expressed sequence tag analysis of Drosophila female reproductive tracts identifies genes subjected to positive selection. Panhuis, T. Molecular evolution and population genetic analysis of candidate female reproductive genes in Drosophila.

The rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. Nature Rev. The enemies within: intergenomic conflict, interlocus contest evolution ICE , and the intraspecific Red Queen. Gavrilets, S. Rapid evolution of reproductive barriers driven by sexual conflict. Stepinska, U. Jamieson, B. Stewart, S. Species specificity in avian sperm:perivitelline interaction. A Mol. Berlin, S. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

BMC Evol. Voolstra, C. Contrasting evolution of expression differences in the testis between species and subspecies of the house mouse. Meiklejohn, C. Rapid evolution of male-biased gene expression in Drosophila. Grantham, R. Codon catalog usage is a genome strategy modulated for gene expressivity. Bennetzen, J. Codon selection in yeast. Duret, L. Expression pattern and, surprisingly, gene length shape codon usage in Caenorhabditis , Drosophila , and Arabidopsis.

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Differences in synonymous codon choice patterns of yeast and Escherichia coli with reference to the abundance of isoaccepting transfer RNAs. Moriyama, E. Codon usage bias and tRNA abundance in Drosophila. Hambuch, T. Patterns of synonymous codon usage in Drosophila melanogaster genes with sex-biased expression.

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Evolution 38 , — Charlesworth, B. The relative rates of evolution of sex chromosomes and autosomes. References 46 and 47 represent seminal work on the theoretical expectations for the probability of fixation of sexually antagonistic mutations. Oliver, B. Battle of the Xs. Bioessays 26 , — A global profile of germ line gene expression in C. Cell 6 , — One of the first large-scale studies of sex-biased gene expression.

Wang, P. An abundance of X-linked genes expressed in spermatogonia. Khil, P. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for sex-biased genes not subject to selection by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Wu, C. Saifi, G.

An apparent excess of sex- and reproduction-related genes on the human X chromosome. Birchler, J. Dosage balance in gene regulation: biological implications.

Marin, I. The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms. Bioessays 22 , — A new study appearing in Science Advances this week sheds light on the activity of a SNP linked to prostate cancer risk.

A role for the SNP in prostate cancer has been established by previous genome-wide association studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association were unknown. In the study, investigators show that the variant is located in an enhancer active in prostate cancer cells. Meanwhile, deletion of the enhancer from prostate tumor cells resulted in decreased tumor initiation, tumor growth, and invasive migration, as well as a loss of stem-like cells. Using capture chromosome conformation capture and RNA sequencing, they identify genes on the same and different chromosomes as targets regulated by the enhancer, and the researchers show that expression of individual candidate target genes in an enhancer-deleted cell line rescued different aspects of tumorigenesis.

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